Sprains and strains
Sprains and strains are common injuries affecting the muscles and ligaments. Most can be treated at home without seeing a GP.
Check if you have a sprain or strain
It's likely to be a sprain or strain if:
- you have pain, tenderness or weakness – often around your ankle, foot, wrist, thumb, knee, leg or back
- the injured area is swollen or bruised
- you cannot put weight on the injury or use it normally
- you have muscle spasms or cramping – where your muscles painfully tighten on their own
|Torn or twisted ligament (tissue that connects the joints)
|Overstretched or torn muscle (also known as a pulled muscle)
|Most common in: wrists, ankles, thumbs, knees
|Most common in: knees, feet, legs, back
How to treat sprains and strains yourself
For the first couple of days, follow the 4 steps known as RICE therapy to help bring down swelling and support the injury:
- Rest – stop any exercise or activities and try not to put any weight on the injury.
- Ice – apply an ice pack (or a bag of frozen vegetables wrapped in a tea towel) to the injury for up to 20 minutes every 2 to 3 hours.
- Compression – wrap a bandage around the injury to support it.
- Elevate – keep it raised on a pillow as much as possible.
To help prevent swelling, try to avoid heat (such as hot baths and heat packs), alcohol and massages for the first couple of days.
When you can move the injured area without pain stopping you, try to keep moving it so the joint or muscle does not become stiff.
Speak to a pharmacist about the best treatment for you. They might suggest tablets, or a cream or gel you rub on the skin.
If needed, you can take ibuprofen tablets, capsules or syrup that you swallow.
After 2 weeks, most sprains and strains will feel better.
Avoid strenuous exercise such as running for up to 8 weeks, as there's a risk of further damage.
Severe sprains and strains can take months to get back to normal.
You cannot always prevent sprains and strains
Sprains and strains happen when you overstretch or twist a muscle.
Not warming up before exercising, tired muscles and playing sport are common causes.
Get advice from 111 now if:
You've had an injury and:
- it's very painful, or the pain is getting worse
- there is a large amount of swelling or bruising, or the swelling or bruising is getting worse
- it hurts to put weight on it
- it feels very stiff or is difficult to move
- it's not feeling any better after treating it yourself
- you also have a very high temperature or feel hot and shivery – this could be an infection
111 will tell you what to do. They can tell you the right place to get help if you need to see someone.
Other ways to get help
Go to an urgent treatment centre
Urgent treatment centres are places you can go if you need to see someone now.
They're also called walk-in centres or minor injuries units.
You may be seen quicker than you would at A&E.
Treatments for sprains and strains
If you need treatment for a sprain or strain you may be given self-care advice or prescribed a stronger painkiller.
You may need an X-ray, which can sometimes be done at an urgent treatment centre, or you may be referred to hospital.
Physiotherapy for sprains and strains
If you have a sprain or strain that's taking longer than usual to get better, a GP may be able to refer you to a physiotherapist.
Physiotherapy from the NHS might not be available everywhere and waiting times can be long. You can also get it privately.
Self-refer for treatment
If you have a sprain or strain, you might be able to refer yourself directly to services for help with your condition without seeing a GP.
To find out if there are any services in your area:
- ask the reception staff at your GP surgery
- check your GP surgery's website
- contact your integrated care board (ICB) – find your local ICB
- search online for NHS treatment for sprains and strains near you
Call 999 or go to A&E if:
- you heard a crack when you had your injury
- the injured body part has changed shape or is pointing at an odd angle
- the injured body part is numb, tingling or has pins and needles
- the skin around the injury has changed colour, such as looking blue or grey, or is cold to touch
You may have broken a bone and will need an X-ray.